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Hair Structure

Hair Structure

The hair root is enclosed within the hair follicle and the dermal papilla lies at its base. The root is nourished by the bloodstream, which helps the new hair to sprout up. This hair follicle is influenced by the action of the male hormones or androgens which causes it to progressively shrink and thin down in genetically predisposed people.

Hair growth is a cyclical process. It has three alternating phases - Anagen, Catagen and Telogen. Anagen (Growing phase) lasts for 3-5 years, catagen for 2 weeks and telogen (resting phase) for 3 months. The usual ratio of anagen : telogen is 12:1. Normal hair shedding occurs in the telogen phase. The sensitivity of dermal papilla to androgenetic hormones is increased in alopecia patients. The increased level of androgens leads to shortening of the anagen phase of the hair cycle without affecting the telogen stage. As a result of this, the ratio of anagen: telogen decreases from the usual 12:1. Thus, the number of hair in anagen phase (which cover the scalp) keeps on progressively decreasing with every cycle and telogen or the resting hair keeps on increasing resulting in bald spots on the scalp. Male Pattern Baldness Treatments and Female Pattern Baldness Treatments can be done by Hair Transplant.

Distribution of Hair

  • Hair is present all over the body except in the skin of hands and feet, lips and genitals and on the end of the fingers and toes. About five million hair follicles are present in our skin while only 2% of them are present on the head.
  • The density of hair is maximum in face (800 hairs/cm2) followed by head, face trunk and extremities.

Causes of Hair loss

1. Noncicatricial Alopecia

  • Physiological: alopecia of infants, post-partum alopecia.
  • Alopecia areata - (Alopecia areata is a medical term in which hair loss from the scalp and body. Alopecia areata treatment is now possible with Hair Transplant)
  • Telogen effluvium
  • Infections: dermatophytosis, bacterial and spirochaetal infections
  • Chemicals & drugs: Thallium/heparin/cancer chemotherapy/hypervitaminosis
  • Physical trauma (self induced): trichotillomania, scratching of neurodermatitis
  • Endocrinopathy: Hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, hypoparathyroid, hyperparathyroid
  • Physical agents: mild trauma, epilating dose of radiotherapy, short term hair traction
  • Systemic diseases: systemic lupus erythematous, dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, langerhan's cell histocytosis, amyloidosis.

2. Cicatricial Alopecia

  • Physical trauma: X-ray overdose burn, long term traction on hair
  • Infections:
    • Bacterial-leprosy, tubeculosis, late secondary and tertiary syphilis, folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis, carbuncles
    • Dermatophytosis: zoonotic fungi
    • Viral: herpes zoster, recurrent herpes simplex
  • Chemical injury: Caustics
  • Cutaneous diseases: discoid lupus erythmatous, pseudopelade, follicular lichen
  • Planus Destructive neoplasm and granulomas
  • Physical trauma (self induced): trichotillomania, scratching of neurodermatitis
  • Psychogenic conditions: neurotic excoriating tactile injury to skin


  • Androgenic alopecia (common baldness)
  • Congenital alopecia
  • Hair shaft abnormalities: monolithix, pili annulati, wooly hair

Evaluation of Hair Loss

The following points are kept in mind while evaluating the hair loss.

  • Rate of linear growth
  • Hair shaft diameter
  • Hair density
  • Hair - cycle status (anagen: telogen ratio or %age of anagen-VI hairs)
  • Pigment content

History and Examination

  • Time period of hair loss (congenital, acquired)
  • Progression of hair loss, remissions if any (alopecia aerate may shoe remission)
  • Any positive family history for hair loss.
  • History of gastrointestinal dysfunction, dysfunction of the thyroid gland, or psychological disorders.
  • History of recent surgical intervention, blood loss, chronic illness.
  • All medications Drugs, particularly anticancer agents, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, thyroid drugs, ß-blockers, and trycyclic antidepressants, can cause diffuse thinning.
  • In females, the menstrual and obstertric history.
  • Hair care routine and hair products applied.

Treatments available for hair loss

Management of Male Pattern Baldness

  • Medical treatment
  • Finasteride
  • Minoxidil
  • Multi vitamins
  • Hair oils
  • Herbal treatmentcv
  • Acupuncture
  • Steroids
  • Homeopathy
  • Laser Therapy
  • Cosmetic aids- wig lets, hair weaves, hair extensions
  • Pigmented powders, lotions and hair sprays.

Surgical treatment - Hair Transplant


  • Punch Transplant
  • Scalp Reduction
  • Scalp Extensions
  • Artificial hair transplants
  • Follicular Unit Hair Transplant
    • STRIP
    • STRIP

The above services are available at our clinics based at New Delhi, Ludhiana & Dubai. These are provided by highly specialized and trained team of doctors and technicians. Our doctors are internationally acclaimed for the results and experience.

Dr.Kapil Dua and Dr.Aman Dua recently attended the the 19th Annual Meeting of ISHRS. • Best Hair Transplant now in New Delhi also. Automated transplant introduced by AK Clinics • Dr.Kapil Dua and Dr.Aman Dua were the National Faculty at 3rd HAIRCON held at Mumbai. Celebrities who have undergone hair transplant are Virender Sehwag, Salman Khan amongst others. Dr Kapil Dua demonstrated a video on FUE Hair Transplant at the first ASIAN Society of Hair Transplant Surgeons on 24 June, 2011 For More Click Here • Dr Kapil Dua   Dr Aman Dua were invited as faculty for Hair Transplant Workshop at Aesthetics 2013, New Delhi